Pricing is a procedure to determine how much company will receive in exchange for its specific product or service. Intelligent and correct pricing is one of the most important elements of any successful business venture. If your price is too high demand will reduce and you may price yourself out of the market. If your price is too low, your sales volume may not generate enough revenue to cover the costs associated with your business. So the price of the product must covers costs and profits.
In starting a business, regardless its small or large, you must carefully consider your pricing strategy before you start. Established businesses can improve their profitability through regular pricing reviews.The most important thing in pricing is to know the product’s cost price.
- The cost of your product or service is the amount you spend to produce it
- The price is your financial reward for providing the product or service
- The value is what your customer believes the product or service is worth to them
Different Cost Factors In Pricing
You will need to calculate first the cost price of your product to make profit. Working out the accurate cost price of your product is most essential part in pricing. Generally every costs can be divided under these two terms. One is fixed cost and another is variable cost.
Fixed costs are expenses that have to be paid by a company, independent of any business activity. Such as rent, leases, salaries etc. variable costs are those that rise as your sales increase, such as additional raw materials, extra labour, utilities and transport etc.
Different Pricing Strategies
Cost-plus pricing is a very popular method in manufacturing industry. Under this approach, you add together the direct material cost, direct labor cost, and overhead costs for a product, and add to it a markup percentage (to create a profit margin) in order to derive the price of the product.
Cost of Materials + Labour Cost + Overhead cost = Total Cost + Desired profit (30%) = Product sell price.
It is a quite easy process of product pricing, though you should define the overhead allocation method in order to be consistent in calculating the prices of multiple products.
This focuses on the price you believe customers are willing to pay, based on the benefits your business offers them. Value-based pricing depends on the strength of the benefits you can prove you offer to customers. You will need to know your market well to set a value-based price. By contrast, cost-plus pricing is based on the amount of money it takes to produce the product. Companies that offer unique or highly valuable features or services can take the advantage of value-based pricing.
Demand pricing is generally fixed by the optimum combination of volume and profit. Products generally sold through channels at different prices–retailers, discount chains, wholesalers, dealers; are examples of goods whose price is determined by demand. When a wholesaler or distributor buys product in large quantities, he/she gets it in lower unit price. But when a retailer pays more per unit quantity as he/she is purchasing in small quantity.
Setting the price of a product or service based on what the competition is charging. Competitive pricing is used more often by businesses selling similar products, since services can vary from business to business while the attributes of a product remain similar. To use competitive pricing effectively, know the prices each competitor has already established. You can go by three ways like below the competition, at the competition or above the competition.
Mark up refers to the value that manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers add to the cost price of a product. The value added is called the mark-up. The amount to be marked up is decided at the discretion of the company. Basically, this approach sets prices that cover the cost of production and provide enough profit margin to the firm to earn its target rate of return.
If you have a unique product or service, you can sell it at a high price. This is known as skimming – but you need to be sure that what you are selling is unique. As the demand of the first customers is satisfied, the firm lowers the price to attract another, more price-sensitive segment. Skimming is a useful when there are enough prospective customers willing to buy the product at the high price and the high price does not attract competitors.
Pricing For Different Life Cycles
At different stages of your product or service life cycle you may change your pricing strategy according to your business needs. These are three normal variation that generally used in pricing in different stage.
Low price strategy – used to encourage trial of your product or service. As well as repurchase on a regular basis.
High price strategy – used to generate profits to cover launch costs. Product or service may have a unique point of different.
Low price strategy – used short term to stop new competitors entering the market.
High price strategy – used to grow profits.
Decline or Maturity Stage
Low price strategy – used to generate enough revenue to cover costs.
High price strategy – used to maximize revenue in order to fund new projects.
Prices can seldom be fixed for long. Your costs, customers and competitors can change, so you will have to shift your prices to keep up with the market. Getting this crucial business element right from the beginning should be one of your top priorities as a startup owner. Keep close watch on what’s going on and talk to your customers regularly to make sure your pricing remain optimal.