Guar gum, locally called guaran, is a galactomannan. It is basically the ground endosperm of guar beans. The guar seeds are dehusked, milled and screened to obtain the guar gum.It is typically produced as a free-flowing, off-white powder.It is a natural food thickener, similar to locust bean gum, cornstarch or tapioca flour.
It is said to have significantly more thickening ability than cornstarch, at a fraction of the cost. This has made it a popular additive in products such as puddings and ice creams. Previously it was also an ingredient in non-prescription diet pills designed to create a sense of fullness.
Production and Trade of Guar Gum Manufacturing
The guar bean is mainly grown in India, Pakistan, US, China, Australia and Africa. India produces 2.5 – 3.5 million tons of guar annually, making it the largest producer with about 80% of world production.
In India, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Haryana are the main producing regions, and Jodhpur, Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarhin Rajasthan are the major Guar trading markets. Hanumangarh – Ganganagar is the main production area for best quality guar beans, so called “Fast-Hydrating Guar”.
The United States has produced 4,600 to 14,000 tons of guar over the last 5 years.As many as 50,000 acres of guar have been grown in West Texas over the last 50 years.
Guar Gum Manufacturing Process
Guar Gum powder is manufactured by mechanical extraction from the guar seed endosperm which contains about 80% Galactomannan (gum).
The gum is made from the endosperms of the seed, recovered by hulling the seed and breaking away the endosperms, known as ‘splits’.
The product is traded in the form of splits or powder and, its value is judged by its viscosity, measured in centipoises units abbreviated to ‘cp’. Typically, high-viscosity guar has a higher market price.
Guar gum is obtained by an automatic mechanical process in which first the seed is split into two halves and the hull and the germ are mechanically scraped off to obtain endosperm. Refined guar splits are obtained by splitting the guar seed into two halves and dehusking and polishing the grains.
These splits are then pulverized and tailor made for usage in different industries. The endosperm thus obtained is further purified and grounded into powder of required granulation and viscosity.
After pulverization, sieving is done to get the required mesh.
The sieved gum is then passed through blenders to make it homogenous.
State-of-the-art plants are capable of producing several grades of guar gum ranging from very low to very high viscosity and from coarse to fine granulation.
Industrial Applications of Guar Gum
- Textile industry – sizing, finishing and printing
- Paper industry – improved sheet formation, folding and denser surface for printing
- Explosives industry – as waterproofing agent mixed with ammonium nitrate, nitroglycerin, etc.
- Pharmaceutical industry – as binder or as disintegrator in tablets; main ingredient in some bulk-forming laxatives
- Cosmetics and toiletries industries – thickener in toothpaste, conditioner in shampoos (usually in a chemically modified version)
- Hydraulic fracturing Shale oil and gas extraction industries consume about 90% of guar gum produced from India and Pakistan.
- Hydroseeding – formation of seed-bearing “guar tack”
- Medical institutions, especially nursing homes – used to thicken liquids and foods for patients with dysphagia
- Fire retardant industry – as a thickener in Phos-Chek
- Nanoparticles industry – to produce silver or gold nanoparticles, or develop innovative medicine delivery mechanisms for drugs in pharmaceutical industry.
There is a good scope for new entrepreneurs to start a small scale guar gum manufacturing business.
Guar Dehusking Plant Consist Following Machinery
Some of the basic machinery for guar gum manufacturing are Cleaning, Splitter, Elevator, Pneumatic Conveyor, Centrifugal, Roaster, Dehusking, Cooler, Cone Mixer, Bagging, Rotary Siever, Ultrafine Pulverizer, Water Tank, Flaker Machine, pneumatic dryer line, conical blender. Guar Dehusk Split Powder Plant.